AUTHOR: Tamara Babić

Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart

Abstract

Unlike1 German cities such as Berlin, Karlsruhe, Schwetzingen, Düsseldorf, Leipzig or Würzburg, Bayreuth is not known for its reception of ancient Egypt. The most visible part of the local identity is connected with rulers from history and the composer Richard Wagner, as the city is sometimes called the city of Wagner. In Bayreuth, there are no buildings of monumental dimensions inspired by ancient Egypt like the Main train station in Stuttgart, and the reception of Egypt in architecture is more modest, but it still offers recognizable forms and patterns. In Bayreuth, there are bridges with obelisks, fountains with obelisks, and smaller obelisks that adorn the facades of several residential buildings. In this paper are also presented several examples of the reception of ancient Egypt from the city cemetery, as well as modern sculptures by the sculptor Horst Antes, which are located in the city center. The design of the casino show window is also shown as an example of the stereotypical image of Egypt as an association with boundless wealth. It is interesting that there are no ancient Egyptian artifacts in the Archaeological Museum in Bayreuth, and that Egypt can be known in person only in the museum collections of larger cities.

Key words: reception of Ancien Egypt, obelisk, pyramid, sphinx, Egyptian revival, Bayreuth

Intorduction

More than two millennia long history of the reception of Ancient Egypt led forms and ideas from the land of pharaohs to every corner of the modern world. One the first steps of this path is marked by the reception of Egypt in the architecture of foreign rulers in Egypt itself as they both displaced original Egyptian structures and made egyptianizing objects themself. Original Egyptian monuments have also been transported to Europe (and elsewhere) until Egyptian elements have finally become a part of European architectural language and present in many other aspects of everyday life. The exact meaning of the reception of ancient Egypt implies incorporating Egyptian ideas or forms in the creation of the „recipient“, but rather as a new construct and not only as a copy. In the next lines some of the most notable examples of the reception of ancient Egypt will be mentioned, but also of appropriation and fascination which are not regarded as receptions, as they are all important for understanding the subject.

The Canaanite (Late Bronze Age)/ Phoenician (Iron Age) use of Egyptian motives in artefacts began in the Ist millennia B.C.E2. Ideas of incorporating elements of pharaonic Egyptian art in the decoration of cities may be traced to the Nubian kings of the twenty-fifth dynasty3. Their first pyramids evolved directly from the tumuli in the reign of Piye (744-714 B.C.E)4 and they have had a function of legitimizing the rule over Egypt. Greek rulers of Egypt, Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II had similar ideas in mind. Their capital Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.E., presented ideas of control over Egypt, but also a place of heritage and tradition. They achieved that effect through possession of displaced original Egyptian pieces of art. Roman emperors have used Egyptian obelisks like spolia in Europe and one of the most prominent examples is the obelisk at Circus Maximus, purchased by emperor August (27. B.C.E.-14 C.E.). Subsequent emperors have followed this pattern, and soon the Romans have had an impressive assemblage of Egyptian obelisks. But obelisks were not only present in Rome. Theodosius also wanted an Egyptian obelisk for his capital Constantinopole, so he procured one that was placed at the hyppodrome5. In that time, obelisks could be found also in other cities like Vienna, Antioch or Arles. Illustrations of incorporating Egyptian themes in contemporary contexts are Villa in Tivoli with the egyptianising presentations of emperor Hadrian`s (117-138) loved Antinous and Iseum Campense – the temple of Isis in Rome is full of egyptianizing artefacts, among others Mensa Isiaca, a table made of bronze with hieroglyphs, gods and animals, made in the 1st century6.

In the Middle Ages, Corpus Hermeticum, the Bible, Egyptian antiquities and egyptianizing artefacts in Europe were a link between ancient Egypt and the European world. The Corpus Hermeticum was written between the Ist and IVth centuries and was bequeathed in Byzantine manuscripts between the XIVth and XVIth centuries7. In the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries, modern European nation states have created their identities and Ancient Egypt was an important part of that process. Colonial powers like France or Great Britan considered a matter of prestige to own executive rights to make interpretations of the Egyptian past.

Fascination with Ancient Egypt in Europe has a long history that begins in Ancient Greece that was able to see some of the last stages of pharaonic Egypt and can be followed to the present day. A lot of scientific texts about the reception of ancient Egypt stress the importance of events such as the French campaign in Egypt (1798–1801), the decipherment of the hieroglyphs by J. F. Champollion in 1822 and thus the birth of Egyptology or the discovery of the tomb of the KV62 – a resting place of the king Tut – as triggers that attracted new interest in Egyptian themes. Periodic cycles, or „rebirths“ of interest8 are, however, not a part of the reception studies of ancient Egypt, because the land of the Nile is rather a constant part of European horizons of expectations and not a passive object that waits to be rediscovered. For example, in the second part of the XVIIIth century to the Middle of XIXth century, Egyptian motives are very common in Western European architecture. Towards end of the XIXth century they are not so numerous, but instead of quantity, there are very big projects like the Berlin Museum, Zoological Gardens, and World Exhibitions, and from then on also in historical novels, historical paintings and art of other kinds9. Interest in Ancient Egypt is constant in Europe, and in different periods it takes only diverse shapes, that are reflections of European self-image. Persistence of Egyptian ideas and objects are far more than just egyptomania – which is defined as an extreme fascination10 with connotations of the irrational and mania11 –, they are a part of everyone`s history. In the historical approach of importance is the aftermath of an historical event as opposed to the mnemohistorical approach, which emphasises importance of the history of its reception12. The concept of mnemohistory is one of the key concepts in understanding reception, or to be more precise in the receptions of ancient Egypt. It is important to emphasize that there are as many pictures of Egypt as its viewers, and every act of incorporating Egyptian ideas or forms in some new creation – called reception – is a case that has to be examined both in broader historical, and more significant, mnemohistorical context. Although these contexts can be known to the researcher, the personal horizon of expectations and reasons for fabricating exactly that act of reception stays beyond his/her reach. That is why it is more accurate to designate the concept as receptions, as fluid, dynamic constructs that are in constant change13.

Walk like an Egyptian: in Bayreuth

Bayreuth is the center of Oberfranken, a county of Bayern in south-east Germany. Unlike some other german cities like Karlsruhe with pyramids, obelisks and sphinxes of the architect Friedrich Weinbrenner14 (1766-1826), or Schwetzingen15 with obelisks and sphinxes in the castle park, Bayreuth is not well-known in the context of the reception of Ancient Egypt. Still, there are numerous monuments inspired with ancient Egypt. margravine Wilhelmine (XVIIIth century) played a big role in today’s look of Bayreuth with her architectural variante of rococo latter called “Bayreuther rococo”. In the first half of the XIXth century, building works stagnated, until the process of industrialisation was completed16. Another part of Bayreuth’s local identity is connected with Richard Wagner`s legacy as composer as he and his family were its most famous citizens. Around the city one can see small sculptures with texts about Wagner, and the grave of the composer and his wife is in the park near the Wagner’s museum that used to be a family house of the Wagners. One of the most prominent buildings in the city is the opera, the „Festspielhaus“ designed by Wagner himself.

Most of the architectural elements in egyptianized style were built in the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries, but egyptian elements are present also in modern structures. The reception of Ancient Egypt in architecture, generally dated before 1900, focused at the purpose and messages that were explicitly connected with sphinxes, obelisks, pyramids or hieroglyphics; at the beginning of the XXth century German architects were interested in Egyptian simple forms and monumentality17 like the monumental main train station in Stuttgart (1914-1928) build after construction plans of architects Paul Bonatz and Friedrich E. Scholer 18. Examples of the reception of Egypt in the architecture of Bayreuth are amongst the first mentioned group. Most representative buildings in Bayreuth are in barock style e.g. the Margravial Opera House (1745-1750), especially Bayreuter rococo like the new castle (Neues Schloss 1753-1758), or Hellenistic Romanticism like Wagner´s Festspielhaus (1872–75). Egyptian reception in Bayreuth is rather minimalistic and reduced to language that is explicitly Egyptian in its distant past origin, but so common in European architectural setting that it is a natural part of European cities.

City cemetery (Stadtfriedhof)

Houston Stewart Chamberlain – English writer that lived in Bayreuth, was married to Richard Wagner’s daughter and was a friend of Hitler19. Hitler visited Chamberlain in occasion of his speech in Bayreuth20. The stone is made of reddish granite, that was also used in ancient Egypt, and at the top is a decorated frieze with elegant stylised leaves (Fig. 1). At the front of the stone, under the biblical quotation “The Kingdom of God is within you” from the 17th chapter of Luke, is a Christian cross and the author’s name. In her book Isis Unveiled (1877) Blavatsky suggested that Ancient Egyptians were ancient Indians and that means Aryan, the claim that is used in Nazi Theosophy21. That connection could be used as an explanation of the design of the writers grave stone. Red, brown, yellow and gold are colours connected with the sun22 so the symbolysm of redish granite of Chamberlain’s stone has a clear meaning.

Figure 1. Tomb-stone of Houston Stewart Chamberlain (author: T. B., 2017).
Figure 2. Pyramid of Henriette von Bülow, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).

Pyramid of Henriette von Bülow

From antiquity are the pyramidal tombs, and latter memorials, considered appropriate as a place of remembrance for deceased members of society (Fig. 2). The snake is a well-known Egyptian symbol that represents eternity and in combination with a pyramidal form this tomb definitely found an inspiration in Egyptian ideas23. The most notable analogy is the pyramid of Caius Cestius in Rome (ca 12. BC).

Colonel Carl Fritsch’s obelisk

Colonel Carl Fritsch was a military officer that died in Bayreuth after 44 years of military service. His sandstone obelisk on a rectangular base pedastal has a broken off tip, as a symbol of transience (Fig. 3). The type of grave stones in the shape of an obelisk goes back to the Renaissance period, but can be found increasingly in the XVIIIth century. Allusion to Ancient Egypt is clear in this example24, and it is related to the idea of burial culture of ancient Egyptians which is suitable for the educated people of that time.

Figure 3. Colonel Carl Fritsch obelisk, Stadtfriedhof, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).
Figure 4. Tombstone with sun-disk and sunrays, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).

New kind of tombstones with a sun-disc and sunrays appeared in the last few decades (Fig. 4). They are part of a practice of using Egyptian iconographical language as a medium for transmitting the hopes for deceased members of a family. One of the earliest examples of the sun disc with wings on Carian grave stelae is known from 550-530 B.C.E. and shows a mixture of ancient Egyptian and ancient Greek motifs25.

Obelisks, pyramids and pharaohs in the city of Bayreuth

The principle of repetition leads to establishing recognizable patterns clearly identifiable as part of a common culture26. Jan Assmann used this explanation for rituals, but it can have a far broader implementation, for example in understanding architectural settings. Obelisks are a part of European cities more than two millennia and from all Egyptian architectural forms they are the most used and have probably the widest range of variations. Ancient Egyptian obelisks were in most cases dedicated to sun gods and their origin can be traced back to the solar cult at Heliopolis27. In both a spatial and a temporal sense the long history of obelisks starts in Egyptian temples and tombs and continues to shape the appearance of modern European cities. In Bayreuth, obelisks are part of the decorations of bridges, part of obelisk fountains, the obelisks of smaller dimensions appear at the new-renaissance residential buildings.

Roter Main river in Bayreuth caused big problems to citizens in the past, because two times a year the level of water becomes really high. One of the bridges at the river – Ludwig’s bridge – was inaugurated by Prince Ludwig (later King Ludwig III) in 1905. In 1968 the bridge was demolished, but its obelisks were preserved28. The bridge had four sandstone obelisks as markers of memory to splendour of past times. The obelisk from Annecyplatz/Hohenzollerning (Fig. 5) stands at the place where the bridge once was and the other tree obelisks (Fig. 6) can be seen at the parks around the river (Ellrodtweg). Another bridge, made of concrete in 1915 – also over the Red Main river (between Hindenburgstraße and Casselmannstraße) – is flanked by obelisks (Fig. 7) made by Munich sculptor Julius Seidler (1867-1936). The practice of using Egyptian elements in the construction of bridges is connected with ideas of strength and durability, and some early suspension-bridges have had egyptianising features, like the Chain Pier (1823)29 in Brighton/England. The bridge at Monbijou in Berlin, by Carl Gottard Langhans (1732-1808) and Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850) was also decorated with sphinxes30.

Figure 5. One of the Obelisks from Ludwig’s bridge, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).
Figure 6. Obelisk from Ludwig’s bridge, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).
Figure 7. Obelisk on a bridge made by Munich sculptor Julius Seidler (author: T. B., 2017)

Fountains were a symbol of the goddess Isis in antiquity, and this meaning was also adopted for the Christian Madonna31. The idea of putting the obelisk in the center of a fountain was manifested in the Fountain of the Four Rivers, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680). The obelisk fountain was commissioned by Pope Innocent X (1574–1655) and erected in the Piazza Navona in Rome in 1648–165132. There were already examples of the connection of this two elements in the XVIIth century, but Bernini put the obelisk in the center of the water basin, which is a position that is common in later centuries.

Figure 8. Obelisk fountain in front of the church in the center of Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).

There are four obelisk fountains in Bayreuth. The one at the Kirchplatz 1, near the biggest church in Bayreuth (Stadtkirche), is the most visible example (Fig. 8). A table on the sandstone monument shows the year 1789 and the name of the sculptor Franz Peter Schuh (1743–1803). The design for the fountain was made by court architect Johann Gottlieb Riedel (1722–1791). Another one is located in the courtyard of today’s city nursery in Meyernberg (Meyernberger Straße 54), a former manor, and the other two at Sankt Georgen – one near the collegiate church on Brandenburger Allee, the other in the courtyard of the juvenile detention center33.

Figure 9. Building with obelisks at Robert-Koch-Straße no. 8, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).
Figure 10. Building with obelisks at Bahnhofstraße no. 7, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).

The reception of ancient Egypt in the architecture of the XIXth century is characterized by a tendency to build objects of smaller dimensions than original Egyptian examples34. The buildings with obelisks in Bayreuth seem as a natural part of the surrounding architectural setting (Figs. 9–10). The buildings in Robert-Koch-Straße and Banhofstraße (1887) were built of sandstone in Neo-Renaissance style and the obelisks on them are to be seen as a natural part of visual impression. Obelisks became a part of visual language incorporated in the preferred styles for example in German Neo-Renaissance style, also in many other German cities (Ludwigsburg, Stuttgart…). On figure is one building represented with three obelisks: one at the top and two that flank the end of the roof. A second building has two obelisks. On the Castle Sankt Johannis in Bayreuth two discreet obelisks are also visible above the entrance, which are an inseparable part of the rhythm of the whole façade.

At the crossing of Ziegelleite and Eremitagestraße, there is a war memorial dedicated to the Franco-German war of 1870/71. The memorial has the form of an obelisk and it was made of sandstone. The name of the sculptor is A. Schilling. In the Kulmbacherstrasse 85, there is a sandstone pyramid, that has such elongated sides that it looks almost like an obelisk. There are reliefs with hammer, gear, and lyre.

Horst Antese’s sculptures

Since 2004 in the Canal Grande (Mühlkanal) in the center of the city are three works of Horst Antese’s Poggibonski series35. The two-dimensional steel figures (38 x 45 x 14,7 cm) incorporate some Egyptian motifs: step pyramids, schematised figures shown in profile, lotus flowers which are all located in and thus emphasized through the connection with the river they are errected in (Figs. 11–12). In the work of Horst Antes some associations with Egypt are obvious, but in this example the context of the river also matters and the fact that some ideas from the land of the Nile are incorporated so deeply inside European minds that we are sometimes not even able to detect the roots of ideas. To understand the reception of Ancient Egypt it is important to take into consideration not only the form and appearance of an object, but its deeper meaning36.

Figures 11–12. Horst Antese
‘s sculptureswith step pyramid and lotus flowers,
Bayreuth (author: TB, 2017).
Figure 13. Show window of the casino “Admiral”, Bayreuth (author: T. B., 2017).

Ancient Egypt is a common theme in visual identities of casinos because of its connection in popular culture with enormous wealth. Perhaps the discovery of King Tut’s tomb in 1922 and the echo it made in media was responsible for strenghtening this stereotyped image. As obelisks became normal phenomena in the architectural setting of European cities, pharaohs with golden Nemes-hairdresses, pyramids and sphinxes are part of billboards, show windows and other types of advertising of casinos. One of the most popular examples is the Luxor Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas with a great pyramid and a sphinx with red laser-eyes. As we can see at the Bayreuth casino “Admiral”, the show windows are empty except five sculptures and one bust (Fig. 13). The viewer may see only these figures with a sharp contrast of black incarnate and gold details and the empty space between the sculptures intensify an impression of mystery.

The only Freemasonry museum in Germany is in Bayreuth, in the vicinity of the grave and the house of Richard Wagner. Freemasonry is often connected with ancient Egypt and takes Egyptian symbols for decorations of Lodge temples, names of Egyptian gods as the names of the Lodges etc37. This connection has its roots in the writings of the platonistic philosophers who saw ancient Egypt as a symbolic and mysterious culture, that doesn’t have to be understood the way it is seen, but one has to search for its deeper meaning38.

In the archaeological museum in the city of Bayreuth are no Egyptian findings and whoever wants to see some, has to go to museums in the cities like Berlin, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Tübingen etc. Bayreuth is well known as the place where Wagner lived, and that is the most important thing for the image of the city. It would be interesting to make a survey of mental maps of the citizens and find out if they are aware of Egyptian symbols in the picture of their city. Also, it would be interesting to question well established identities and take a look at the city from some other angle. That way well-established notions are challenged and new questions and dialogues between present and past are created.

Conclusion

Bayreuth offers a thrilling variety of examples of the reception of ancient Egypt. In this case study it is visible that ancient Egyptian influence on European identities left deep traces. Although in Bayreuth the most emphasis was put on the local histories that have created today´s appearance of the old part of the city, Egyptian motives are visible. Using Egyptian symbolic at the graveyards and in memorial architecture is a widespread phenomenon that proposes connections with ideas of immortality, durability, remembrance. Modern use as a decorative repertoire of casinos became, in the meantime, also a common place of modern cities. Egyptian motifs on buildings are probably the most explicit exponent of the phenomenon of Egyptian influence on the taste of European architects and purchasers as a subconscious looking for own origins. Through the course of time ancient Egyptian ideas and symbols evolved from mysterious and strange “other” to something more familiar, some kind of everyone´s collective identities.

REZIME

Za razliku od nemačkih gradova poput Karlsrue koji ima piramidu, obelisk i sfinge, izrađene po projektu arhitekte Fridriha Vajnbrenera (1766-1826) ili Švecingena u kome je park sa obeliscoma i sfingama, Bajrojt nije poznat po recepciji starog Egipta, a ipak se u njemu daju prepoznati suptilniji egipatski uticaji. U Bajrojtu nema zdanja monumentalnih razmera inspirisanih starim Egiptom, već je recepcija Egipta u arhitekturi svedena, ali ipak nudi prepoznatljive forme i obrasce. U Bajrojtu postoje mostovi sa obeliscima, fontane sa obeliscima, a obelisci manjih dimenzija krase fasade nekoliko stambenih objekata. U radu je prikazano nekoliko primera recepcije starog Egipta sa gradskog groblja, kao i moderne skulpture vajara Hornst Antesa koje se nalaze u centru grada. Prikazan je i dizajn izloga kazina kao primer stereotipne slike Egipta kao asocijacije bezgraničnog bogatstva. Zanimljivo je da u arheološkom muzeju u Bajrojtu nema staroegipatskih artefakata, te da se Egipat lično može upoznati tek u muzejskim zbirkama većih gradova.


FOOTNOTES:

1 The author is most grateful to Steffen Berger for help in writing this article

2Stephanie Moser, „Reconstructing Ancient Worlds: Reception Studies and Ancient Egypt“, in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 22 (2015), 1263–1308 .

3Peter Lacovara, “Pyramids and Obelisks beyond Egypt”, in Aegyptiaca 2 (2018): 124-137.

4Peter Lacovara, „From Tumulus to Pyramid: The Development of the Kushite Royal Tomb“, in The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture 3 (2018): 141-152.

5Bente Kiilerich, The Obelisk base in Constantinople: Court art and Imperial Ideology (Roma: Giorgio Bertschneider Editore, 1998), 19.

6Anna Krüger, „Stationen der Ägypten Rezeption bis 1850“, in Ägypten, Die Moderne, die `Beuroner Kunstschule`, ed. by Harald Siebenmorgen und Anna zu Stolberg (Karlsruhe: Badisches Landesmuseum. 2009): 17-31.

7 Florian Ebeling, The secret History of Hermes Trismegistus.Hermeticism from Ancient to Modern Times (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2007), 10.

8 see Salvatore Settis, The Future of the classical (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006).

9 Frederike Werner, Ägyptenrezeption in der Europäischen Architektur des 19. Jahrhunderts (Weimar: Verlag und Datenbank für Geisteswissenschaften, 1994): 93-94.

10 Bob Brier, Egyptomania. Our Three Thousand Year Obsession with the Land of the Pharaohs (New York: Palgrave Macimillian, 2013): 19.

11Miguel John Verluys, „Une gѐographie intѐrieure“: the Perpetual Presence of Egypt“, in Aegyptiaca 3 (2018): 159-166.

12 Jan Assmann, “Egyptian Mysteries and Secret Societies in the Age of Enlightenment. A `mnemo-historical`study”, in Aegyptiaca, 1 (2017): 4-25.

13Tamara Babic, “Mnemohistories and Receptions of ancient Egypt in Serbia“, forthcoming

14See Alexandra Becker and Jessica Schwinn, „Ägyptishe Motive in Bauten und Denkmälern von Friedrich Weinbrenner“, in Pyramide, Sphinx und Obelisk. Ägyptische Motive in Karlsruhe und am Oberrhein (Karlsruhe: Badisches Landesmuseum, 2002): 11-15.

15See Kathrin Bauer, Julia Habich, Anke Moch, „Obelisken und Sphingen im Schlosspark von Schwetzingen“, in Pyramide, Sphinx und Obelisk. Ägyptische Motive in Karlsruhe und am Oberrhein (Karlsruhe: Badisches Landesmuseum, 2002): 15-18.

16 Rainer Trübsbach, GeschichtederStadtBayreuth (Bayreuth: Druckhaus Bayreuth, 1993).

17 Maxi Schreiber, Altägyptische Architektur und Ihre Rezeption in der Moderne. Architektur in Deutschland 1900-1933 (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2018): 9.

18 Schreiber, Altägyptische Architektur und Ihre Rezeption in der Moderne.280.

19 Wo sie ruhen… Berühmte Grabstätten auf historischen Friedhöfen in Deutschland: www.http://wo-sie-ruhen.de/friedhoefe/?c=4

20 Lothar Mayer, JüdischeFriedhöfeinMittelundOberfranken (Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2012).

21David Huckvale, Ancient Egypt in the Popular Imagination: Building a Fantasy in Film, Literature, Music and Art (McFarland & Co: Jefferson, 2012).

22 Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2008).

23 Simon Franc Meyer, Bayreuth. Figuren und Statuen (Bayreuth: Kunstmuseum Bayreuth, 2009).

24Wo sie ruhen… Berühmte Grabstätten auf historischen Friedhöfen in Deutschland: “Carl von Fritch”, https://wo-sie-ruhen.de/friedhoefe?stadt=15&friedhof=4

25 Curl, The Egyptian Revival, 5.

26 Jan Assmann, Cultural Memory and Early Civilization. Writing, Remembrance, and Political Imagination (Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico City: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 3.

27 Brian Curran, „Obelisks in Ancient Egypt“, in Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, ed. by H. Selin ( ): 3419-3435.

28 Simon Franc Meyer, Kunst im öffentlichen Raum (Bayreuth: Kunstmuseum Bayreuth, 2014).

29 James Stevens Curl, The Egyptian Revival. Ancient Egypt as the Inspiration for Design Motifs in the West (London and New York: Routledge, 2005): 273.

30 Curl, The Egyptian Revival, 243.

31 Curl, The Egyptian Revival, 64-65

32 Anatole Tchikine, “Spreading the canon: The arrival of the obelisk fountain in Portugal”, in Gardens & Landscapes of Portugal, Nr.. 3 (May 2015): 4-16.

33 „Sonstige Barock Brunnen“ : www.markgrafenkultur.de/portfolio-items/sonstige-barock-brunnen-bayreuth/

34 Werner, Ägyptenrezeption in der Europäischen Architektur des 19. Jahrhunderts, 92.

35 Michaela Schmälzle and Martin Ritter, Bayreuth (Gundesberg-Gleichen: Warteberg Verlag, 2012).

36 Florian Ebeling, „Ägyptische Mysterien bei Max Slevogt und Paul Klee? Eine Wirkungsgeschichte jenseits von Orientalismus und Ägyptologie“, in Imagination und Anschauung. Ägyptenrezeption und Ägyptenreisen (Dresden: Sandstein Vrerlag, 2014): 66-74.

37 Florian Ebeling, „´Ägyptische Freimauerei` in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts“, in Zeitschrift für Internationale Freimaurer-Forschung 22 (2009): 9-28.

38 Ebeling, „´Ägyptische Freimauerei` in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts“.